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Indication and Usage

Gamifant® (emapalumab-lzsg) is an IFNγ–blocking antibody indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric (newborn and older) patients with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with refractory, recurrent, or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH therapy.

Indication and Usage

Gamifant® (emapalumab-lzsg) is an interferon gamma (IFNγ)–blocking antibody indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric (newborn and older) patients with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with refractory, recurrent, or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH therapy.

Important Safety Information

Before initiating Gamifant, patients should be evaluated for infection, including latent tuberculosis (TB). Prophylaxis for TB should be administered to patients who are at risk for TB or known to have a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test result or positive IFNγ release assay.

During Gamifant treatment, patients should be monitored for TB, adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) every 2 weeks and as clinically indicated.

Patients should be administered prophylaxis for herpes zoster, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and fungal infections prior to Gamifant administration.

Do not administer live or live attenuated vaccines to patients receiving Gamifant and for at least 4 weeks after the last dose of Gamifant. The safety of immunization with live vaccines during or following Gamifant therapy has not been studied.

Infusion-Related Reactions

Infusion-related reactions, including drug eruption, pyrexia, rash, erythema, and hyperhidrosis, were reported with Gamifant treatment in 27% of patients. In one-third of these patients, the infusion-related reaction occurred during the first infusion.

Adverse Reactions

In the pivotal trial, the most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥10%) for Gamifant included infection (56%), hypertension (41%), infusion-related reactions (27%), pyrexia (24%), hypokalemia (15%), constipation (15%), rash (12%), abdominal pain (12%), CMV infection (12%), diarrhea (12%), lymphocytosis (12%), cough (12%), irritability (12%), tachycardia (12%), and tachypnea (12%).

Additional selected adverse reactions (all grades) that were reported in less than 10% of patients treated with Gamifant included vomiting, acute kidney injury, asthenia, bradycardia, dyspnea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, epistaxis, and peripheral edema.

Please see full Prescribing Information for Gamifant.

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  1. Gamifant [prescribing information]. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB.
  2. Morimoto A, Nakazawa Y, Ishii E. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Pediatr Int. 2016;58(9):817-825.
  3. FDA approves first treatment specifically for patients with rare and life-threatening type of immune disease [news release]. Silver Spring, MD: Food and Drug Administration; November 20, 2018. Accessed June 11, 2021.
  4. Jordan M, Hildeman D, Kappler J, Marrack P. An animal model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): CD8+ T cells and interferon gamma are essential for the disorder. Blood. 2004;104(3): 735-743. doi:
  5. Sepulveda F, de Saint Basile G. Hemophagocytic syndrome: primary forms and predisposing conditions. Curr Opin Immunol. 2017; 49:20-26.
  6. Locatelli F, Jordan MB, Allen C, et al. Emapalumab in children with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(19):1811-1822.
  7. Price B, Lines J, Lewis D, Holland N. Haemphagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a fulminant syndrome associate with multiorgan failure and high mortality that frequently masquerades as sepsis and shock. S Afr Med J. 2014; 104(6):401-406. doi:10.7196/samj.7810.
  8. Jordan MB, Allen CE, Weitzman S, Filipovich AH, McClain KL. How I treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood. 2011;118(15):4041-4052. doi:
  9. Lehmberg K, Nichols KE, Henter J-I, et al. Consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with malignancies. Haematologica. 2015:100(8):997-1004.
  10. Marsh RA, Haddad E. How I treat primary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Br J Haematol. 2018;182(2):185-199. doi: 10.1111/bjh.15274.

in primary HLH

Preclinical data suggest that the cytokine IFNγ plays a central and upstream role in the pathogenesis of primary HLH. A massive overexpression of IFNγ leads directly to downstream hypercytokinemia and hyperinflammation.1,4,5

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About Gamifant

HOw Gamifant WOrks

Gamifant binds to soluble and receptor-bound forms of IFNγ. Binding to IFNγ neutralizes its activity, blocking its intracellular signaling to inhibit macrophage activation and the downstream release of proinflammatory cytokines.1,2,6,7

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Dosing And Administration

Depending on patient response, Gamifant can be incrementally titrated upward or downward. Similarly, the concomitant dose of dexamethasone may be tapered from the original starting dose according to the judgment of the treating physician.1

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(95% CI: 0.42, 0.81;  P = 0.013)

discover The data

Gamifant yielded a 63% overall response rate in patients with refractory, recurrent, or progressive disease or intolerance to conventional therapy. Seventy percent of patients proceeded to transplant.1

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